Today's Birthdays
Nobody writes the literature for a pride, it borns from the character, also it satisfies the needs of nation...
Akhmet Baitursynuly
A topic was about the last migration...

13.11.2020 2446

A topic was about the last migration 12+

A topic was about the last migration -

It is a natural phenomenon that the destiny of the writer, his biography is in his work. One writer once asked, “Why are you asking for my way in life? Isn't everything in my work?” - That's why they say. It is an obvious thing that Kabdesh Zhumadilov's way of life, what he saw and felt when he was growing up, is reflected in his works. In this regard, an author wrote in his article about the novel-dilogy “The Last Migration”: “I was born and raised in the far East Turkestan, where the nomadic life of the Kazakhs was preserved until the middle of this century. An unstable destiny of a country far removed from civilization, the nomadic people crossing the border, some form of national oppression and colonialism, repression, shootings, imprisonment, famine, and finally humiliation of the humble people, and refugeeism is something we have experienced and tasted” ... These events were the backbone for “The last migration”. Yes, if we say that the story of Kabdesh Zhumadilov's works covers both sides of the border, it is clear that the main basis of the writer's work is the content and ideas, as he said, after reviewing his works for sixty years.

The first volume of Kabdesh Zhumadilov's novel dilogy "The Last Migration" was published in 1974. This period began with the novel "Wrath" (By Ilyas Esenberlin), when our famous historical figures, the cream of the nation, were returned to our literature and our minds were shaken too. Many wonderful novels were written, and the Kazakh people experienced a spiritual revival in the period of stagnation. It would definitely be absord to say that “The Last Migration” is the first work of its kind. Saken Zhunusov's work “Zamanai and Amanai” was written ten years ago. But there is no doubt that Kabdesh Zhumadilov was the first person who wrote about the fate and dreams of Kazakhs living abroad on an epic scale. This is the content of the novel-dilogy, the main pillar of which is its thematic and ideological integrity - the struggle of Kazakhs and other people in the East Turkestan region against Chinese colonialism. That is, the Kazakh longing for freedom, the preservation of the country - is the main keynote of the novel. Considering the social contradictions of an epoch-making nature, the author seeks to reveal those social contradictions, the impact of social inequalities on the destiny of Kazakh people in the psychology of the whole nation and the individual. This purpose is clearly seen in the general structure, plot and composition of the work, in the number of large and small images.

A novel “The Last Migration” that is called East Turkestan, an ancient homeland of the original Turks, and since then of the Kazakhs, and today it is in the hands of foreigners. It is a reflection of the difficult fate of the country, social relations and living conditions in the rest of the country. Each of the big and small characters in the novel is clearly portrayed. The eldest people of the country Kanagat bi, Nartay, Zhasybay, Shaken, Tursyn are representatives of the older generation. The future owners Nurbek, Zhagypar, Zholbarys, Yestay, who follow in their footsteps, are images that will be remembered by their actions in reader`s memory. One of the categories that the literature of the communist era has given to our understanding is the positive and negative image. It is impossible for any character in any work to be equally positive or equally negative. But in any case, the novel “The Last Migration”, a product of the heyday of socialism, contains images as a set of some negative behaviors. They are drunkards from the country like Nugyman, Ermek, Shonshik, Kozhan Khamitov. They are described as career-minded, worldly people who live with a sense of where the free food comes from. Their accomplices are Li Hong, Yang Ke and Zhang Hua, who are pursuing an aggressive policy of the occupying power in China. An author skillfully describes in various situations how these foreigners, who are well versed in the psychology of Kazakh people, skillfully implement the ancient principle of “Divide and rule” by setting fire to the rulers of the country.

A novel has a gallery of various images of Kazakh women. Kazakh women are not people who stay away from social processes, who grieve only for their families, who live locally, care only for children and rich people. The fact that the Kazakh woman has always had a high place in society can be seen from the actions of the characters in the novel. The images of noble mothers and beautiful girls such as Balzhan, Zhupar, Duriya, Torgyn, Zipa, Sakypzhamal, Nurganym and others in the novel can serve as an evidence of the above. In general, the way of grouping the system of images depicted by the writer in the work should be considered in conjunction with the ideological and artistic nature of the novel. In his work, the writer depicts a personal life of people, the path of destiny, typifies it and raises it to the level of the situation in the head of the nation as a whole. “I am Kazakh, a thousand dead and a thousand resurrected” means that the Kazakh people are on the verge of extinction only in the last four hundred years. An author successfully depicts this historical fact through artistic solutions. The novel depicts a bitter reality of the struggle against the violence and abuse of the dominant nations and the oppressors among us. Crossing the border from the far side and near side, and where there was a source of life, there was a government of red-eyed communists who have been in power in China since 1949. The communists, who came under the slogan of mourning the Day of the Poor, are stirring up the traditional Kazakh society and spreading rumors about the country around Shaueshek. As in the case of Akpar and Abilgazy in the former country, petty quarrels and tribal conflicts erupt. The characters become more personal through a variety of events.

The novel is full of the individual episodes and short stories that form the basis of the work. A writer skillfully describes and narrates all of them: episodes, plot lines, gradually bringing them together in one channel, the social inequality and injustice that pervade society as a whole. The kuis of the country's brothers Kanagat bi, Nartay, Tursyn, and Zhasybay, who were anxious to protect their nation and be proud of their name, were convincingly conveyed through various events. They feel the fate of the country and look for a way out. The author puts into the mouth of each character the words that are the motto of the country, also inspires the reader, makes him think.

As it was mentioned earlier, the novel is bound to have the negative characters. According to the author's description, the system of images, that are clearly described in detail, is also distinguished by its authenticity in the novel “The Last Migration”. Their negative human behavior and psychological state are intertwined with the story, and their sincerity, the reader sometimes boils and shakes his head involuntarily. “Literary image is born from the writer's attempt to collect and individualize through the high taste of life, away from the small, random genres. When it comes to changing the patterns of life of the literary image, the character of each character in the work of the artist is not one person, but a variety of people”, - said academician Z. Kabdolov. The mastery of the writer is reflected in the fact that the character and the portrait approach used to create a certain image are considered at the same level. That is, if we see the behavior of the negative character at the novel in everyday life, it will be a real achievement of the writer through his work.

An inclusion of character in the plot of the work will be a way to provoke the controversy. It goes without saying that it takes a skill to capture the various features of human nature in a work of art, that leads to the discovery of various nuances of reality. If we say that a portrait is able to convey not only the appearance of a person, but also a number of phenomena of the inner world, then a verbal description is a more complex psychological depth. Kabdesh Zhumadilov's writing skills are characterized by the gradual revelation of the whole image through the details, following the deep threads of the psychological situation. Not only the actions and behavioral features of the typical images in the novel “The Last Migration” are important for the reader, but also their dynamic portraits of various actions. An artist's skill in drawing in words, that is, in creating a rich and convincing portrait, is revealed through the diversity of images and the realism of the composition. Through the composition of the novel-dilogy “The Last Migration” the life and customs of the people living in East Turkestan are systematically described through the plot lines. Based on the life of a nomadic country, the author vividly depicts the signature of various modern social phenomena on the behavior and customs of the people. The museum life of the steppe, that is depicted in the "Sarzhailau" section of the novel, is a clear proof of this. As the internal strife gradually escalates, the life of the steppe, that is in a state of disrepair, becomes more and more complicated. In the novel we see the author's unique descriptive skills, time and his signature in the transmission of social phenomena. An author uses the terms “Yesterday's Grass”, “Today's Grass”, “Yesterday's Nugyman”, “Yesterday's Zhailau”, “Today's Zhailau” in relation to the society and the individual, that are gradually changing over time.

Kazakh people had become completely colonized in the XIX century. The twentieth century had been the time when the Manchu Empire and Russia, or Tsarist Russia, divided the vast Kazakh steppes, gradually conquered the land and then the spirit of the country. In the novel “The Last Migration”, he reveals the extent to which the colonial policy affected the Kazakhs in China, that appeared in the people of the Qing Empire. The greed of the new government, that overthrew the Kuomintang and ended the days of the East Turkestan state, is clearly described here. The main plot of the novel is the arrival of the Chinese People's Liberation Army to East Turkestan, the collection of weapons stored in the country, the compilation of a list of men who fought in the national liberation movement, and the gradual repression and imprisonment of them. In the end, the local population, that did not tolerate such abuse, moved to the land of the Kazakhs, that is, to the land of Motherland Kazakhstan. We see that small plot lines are connected to this line of events, and a large-scale, novel-dilogical, plot-compositional integrity has been achieved throughout this novel.

One of the most pressing issues in the history of our nation was the supreme spiritual strength of the leaders, based on the will and honor. That is why, the Chinese invaders, who came to colonize the Kazakhs, did not fear the common people, but suspected their leaders and aimed to kill them. A detention under arrest of the rich Kazakhs and their deportation to Urumqi in the novel - this is evidenced by the plot line. The colonizers are well aware of the ease of subduing and subjugating the Kazakh people, if they completely destroy the rebellious leaders. We can clearly see this through the various plots in the novel. That is why, the persecutors used the deception, intimidation and so on, clicking on the methods and moving without a hitch. Men who mourned for the country: Nartay, Tursyn, Shaken were shot, Nurbek, Yestay, Zhagypar, Zholbarys were punished and insulted in the prison. The local tyrants and serpents who helped the invaders began to appear on the stage of history. The plight of the people, the loss of their leaders, was exploited by some incompetent people from the Kazakh community, who ruined the country.

Raising this problem to the level of historical reality, the writer pays attention to the rich psychological sequence of actions and behavior of heroes in the artistic depiction of historical truth. Thus, the nature of the people's tragedy is revealed here. From this point of view, Kabdesh Zhumadilov is a well-written writer, who has his own ideas, a value to give to the society, who has matured and who is full of talent. However, it should be noted that the author does not describe his characters beyond their time and space, to the extent that they do not correspond to their nature, actions and activities of the prototype person. This is because the author is well aware that it is not appropriate to overestimate their heroes and exaggerate their place in history. An uniqueness of the writer lies in the persuasiveness and authenticity of the artistic decision, and it is clear that the artistic decision depends on the skill of the author.

In general, each epoch creates its own personality and hero and Ospan, Nartay, Tursun are the leaders of the national liberation uprising, who rose to the stage of the history of their time in the novel. A heroic image of the next generation is different. The writer clearly shows this through the dynamics of internal development in the artistic solution of the work, the internal laws, the logic of the characters. A special place in the novel belongs to Kanagat bi, who is portrayed as the leaven of the unity and honor of the country, and gradually becomes a clear image. We see that the writer has accumulated one of the most wonderful qualities of the Kazakh people in Kanagat bi. The novel fully describes the high moral qualities of Kanagat bi, the stronghold of the country, the backbone of the nation, that is reflected in various situations, the ability to find a way out of difficult times, and the citizenship of the people of the Black Forest. Kanagat Bi made his great-grandchild as an orphan, helped Nurbek's father Zhangabyl's family and saved him from danger, took Toleubay into his care and brought him to his village. A high moral image of Kanagat bi is formed and personified through the events. Kanagat Bi is one of the rulers of the country, who is described in a positive light in Kazakh literature of the communist period.

One of the most versatile characters in the novel "The Last Migration" is the image of Nugyman. Nugyman is one of the few people who survived the Stalinist repressions and escaped the confiscation of the rich people in Kazakhstan. In fact, the image of Nugyman is unique in Kazakh literature, that did not exist before the introduction of Kabdesh Zhumadilov. Although he looks meek on the outside, his inner world is full of turmoil and contradictions. Satisfying with it, Kanagat bi noticed the blood. The author says: “Some of his dark pockets, his storehouse on the cliff, could only be noticed by Kanagat”. Nugyman, who does everything in his power to save the life of a fly, when necessary, sells the fate of his daughter Duriya and provokes Nartay with treachery. An image of Nugyman is unique in the novel due to its complex character. The characters of Kanagat bi and Nugyman in the novel are depicted in completely opposite directions through their actions and inner feelings. In other words, an irreconcilable enmity of humanity and subtlety, goodness and evil in the novel, an eternal charm - can be said to fit into the actions of these two characters.

A nature of a number of characters in the novel is revealed during the meetings where Nartay and Shaken are denounced as “Enemies of the people”. There is no one to intervene in their case when they are unjustifiably slandered and sentenced to the death. Gradually, the author brings the climax of the story to the fore by shooting Nartay and Shaken in public, in the open air. At that tragic moment, Duriya, who had witnessed the deaths of Nartay and Shaken, died at a young age, suffering from an incurable disease. The wickedness of Nugyman was a blow to his descendants. A role of the young poet Yestay in the novel is not easy. An image of Yestay, who is reflected in the first and second book, is the image of a poet with a delicate nature. He has witnessed and experienced the injustices of society, and suffered with the country. The author has successfully created an impressive and dreamy image of Yestay as a creative person.

In the novel "The Last Evening" there are different destinies of Nugyman, Nurbek, Zhangabyl, Zholbarys, Shashtygali, who escaped from the confiscation and collectivization campaigns in Kazakhstan. The actions of Bakish, Bakich and Timofey Medvedev, who fled Russia, are also unique. They are reflected in the actions of various events in the overall composition of the novel. The fate of the people and individuals who fled from Kazakhstan, the hardships they faced along the border, starvation and looting were the clear gaps in the history of the nation. All of these were the real truths that were squeezed out of the filter of vigilant censorship in the seventies of the last century.

The writer focuses on the representation of an entire epoch through the image of the people of different behaviors who lived at that time, through the perception of the inner world and the outer world of each of them. The theme and idea of ​​the novel "The Last Migration" are based on such integrity. An author's creation of the novel, the main point of contention in it - is revealed not only through the development of the external plot, but also through the contradictions of the inner world of large and small images in it. The writer, who deeply studied the goals and ideas of the communist government, which ruled the country during the turmoil of the Reds, that started to build a new social order, was able to depict the situation in the experience of two countries.

Kabdesh Zhumadilov's novel-dilogy "The Last Migration" - as he said in his memoir "Amazing World" was a piece of Kazakh literature. He was recognized as a great writer who showed a great artistic potential, worldview, artistic language and ability to portray the characters in a vivid way. At the time of writing and publishing a book depicting China, that had captured part of the Kazakh people and pursued a colonial policy, the Motherland was stagnating in Kazakhstan under the slogan “Language is national, content is socialist”. However, the themes of the novels "The Last Migration" and "Destiny" were on the other side of the border, its ideological burden was the dream of all Kazakhs, including many Kazakhs in Atyrau. It was a burden to the two-volume novel - a clear outline of the tragic fate of the author and his family and countryside, as you can see from reading “Amazing World”.

After writing the novel-dilogy “The Last Migration” about the life of many Kazakhs on the other side of the border, the writer did not cover this topic warmly. Then he presented the novel “Destiny” to the reader. In general, it is worth to note the common issues in Kabdesh Zhumadilov's novels “The Last Migration” and “Destiny”. First of all, the commonality is that the events in these two works took place in the same place - Xinjiang or East Turkestan region in the Turkic sense. Secondly, the characters that connect both novels are Simayl, Kuderi, Kanagat bi, Yestaylar. Kabdesh Zhumadilov's novel “Destiny” is also a work of art about the tragic fate of the Kazakhs of East Turkestan. Another thing to note is that we call history and literature twins. Although the history and literature have the same approach to the problem, the way, purpose, and level of its presentation to the reader are different. In fact, sometimes historians have the courage to pick up on topics that historians may or may not have covered. In doing so, the literature introduces what the history has not told yet and blesses the public with new information.

A writer aims to depict the reality of a very difficult period in his novel “Destiny” through the horizon of his knowledge. The situation of the Kazakhs, who were divided into two states due to the division of borders between the Chinese and Russian empires, that considered Central Asia as their direct property, including the subsequent plight of the Chinese brothers, was a burden to the novel. A complete indifference of the people here is convincingly portrayed in the novel.

The two empires, that were divided by the mountain ridges and river valleys, did not even ask the Kazakhs, the real masters, of the ancient settlement, that was a sacred place for Kazakhs and Turks once. Only the state was taken into account. Thus, the settlements of two children of the same father, who lived in the foothills of the same mountain, were separated by a border line, and over the years, their descendants could not avoid the threat of alienation. The Kazakhs, who were under Chinese rule, were subjected to the tyranny of the Shurchi rulers and their armies - the military community. It is not enough to cut off the ancestral lands for the cultivation, the needs of the state, it is an insult to the Kazakhs, who ask for water from those lands. Thus, the Kazakhs, who do not have a political support and sponsors, are not only driven by the authorities to massacre and kill the descendants of the nomadic people, the enemy of the Dzungars, but also betray the Kazakhs and deprive them of their wealth.

Another feature of the novel was the fact that a lot of archival data was unknown to the public before its publication. A novel “Destiny” is based on the division of East Turkestan between the Manchu Empire and the Russian Empire, the fate of the two divided peoples after the demarcation of the border, the events of the late XIX and early XX centuries. As it was mentioned above, in terms of its connection with the novel "The Last Migration", it describes the epoch of Kanagat bi's father Kuderi and grandfather Smail. The section "Road junction" deals with the division of the border between the two countries, the following chapters discuss the situation in the country after this great event, the impact of the border on the structure of Kazakh tribal integrity, various changes in society, the relationship between Kazakhs and Manchus, etc. described in detail. The locals also protested when the border was demarcated, but it did not show much resistance. A plot-compositional integrity of the novel, that combines this turbulent period in the history of the East Turkestan region with its internal and external problems, is based on the main character Demezhan. That is, the main character of the work is Demezhan. He worked tirelessly to preserve the unity and solidarity of his country and people, fighting against the violence and injustice of the Manchu government.

A writer was able to show this period in the history of the people of East Turkestan with its internal and external contradictions. The main character of the work is Demezhan. Demezhan is also the main channel that connects the plot and compositional integrity of the novel, as well as its struggle against the violence and injustice of the Manchu government. He works hard to preserve the unity of the country and its people.

Taking Demezhan as the main character of the novel “Destiny”, we realize that the writer tried to show a true picture of the society and social environment in which he lived. A well-known scientist Sheriyazdan Eleukenov wrote about this: “I would like to mention some peculiarities of the author's questioning. I would say that it is the desire of the Kazakh community to study the changes in the inner soul of the people after the colonial oppression. Yes, it was clear that in our literature, at the time when the one-sided urapatriot phenomenon, that is based on the class consciousness, rather than a deeper look into the inner world of the man, the various subtleties of the soul, the character Demezhan in the novel “Destiny” is presented with a different skill.

A protagonist of the novel, Demezhan, is characterized by the author from an early age, becoming the backbone of the work and gradually growing. Demezhan, an ordinary citizen who was initially under the protection of Shi Amba and his father, gradually became involved in the affairs of the country and became an active brother of the country. An author does not describe and tell about Demezhan's childhood. From the time he married his wife Bibi to the time he worked as a translator in the office of the governor of the region Shi Amba, he rose to the rank of protagonist in the dynamics of various events.

A composition of the novel reflects Demezhan's participation in various social conflicts and domestic situations, as well as an unprecedented number of events in China. It is clear that this use of the writer is not only to reveal the image of Demezhan, but also to reveal the root causes of the consequences of the rule of Manji Shyn. The basis of the novel is the involuntary division of the Kazakh land and country along the border, that the author skillfully conveys in artistic language, sucking his blood. In the novel, the author writes about this issue. “The division of the land is nothing, but the division of the country, where the cattle is mixed, as if one body were torn apart”. A destiny of Demezhan is not only the destiny of one person, but the destiny of the whole country. The novel is based on the many destinies of Demezhan, mixing him with various political events and situations, interacting with a variety of people. He puts it in different states of life and strengthens it. The main events in the novel are: the demarcation of the border, the election campaign of the country's rulers, the collection of taxes within the country,

Demezhan's quarrel with the Chaldeans, the arrival of a new mayor in Tarbagatai, Demezhan's death. All this is expressed through a variety of episodes and details, and the story gradually becomes more complicated as well. The novel focuses on the election of the country's leaders. A writer aims to reveal the character of one of the main characters in this story - the governor of the region Shi Amby and the rulers of the Kazakh tribe. Shi Amby aims to learn about the Kazakh people. He learned the Kazakh language from Li Shanxing. This manuscript of Li Shanxing has become the framework of the novel. After reading this manuscript, Shi Amby decided to thoroughly analyze and study the world of Kazakh history. Then Shi Amby carefully studied the ancient and modern Kazakh traditions and summarized his own opinion. All this is clearly stated in the novel: “What a horrible sight. After all, when a nation is formed, it loses its unity, decays, and begins to decay. This is a nomadic pastime and a board. People's confidence in the future is declining, and selfish betrayal and treachery are slowly gaining ground in the country”. This monologue, uttered by Shi Amba, was in fact the result of the senseless rivalry of the Kazakh rulers, who considered themselves the brothers of the country, the principle of non-violent rule of the Kazakhs in East Turkestan.

Demezhan is a progressive person. He became a favorite of the people through such activities as building the mosques, literacy, farming, and trying to eliminate the tribal divisions. Demezhan's father, Kerimbay, is a Chechen-speaking, populist, single-minded, authoritative man. Looking at Demezhan's direction, he warns his son that this path will not be easy: “But your path will not be easy, this is a country of six-legged, fiery country, where everyone wants to put their own calf, and in the ancient tradition does not consider Kazakhs as human beings, so that I'm afraid you are the one who is going to be screaming in the middle of these two fires”. Indeed, the father's words come true at the end of the novel. An image of Kerimbay is a typical figure of a Kazakh old man who has a lot to see and feel in life, who knows how to understand the future of the world correctly.

Demezhan is a well-known character through various psychological circles. A protagonist of the novel is caught in the act of fighting for the people. Demezhan, who escaped from prison with the help of Gaugan, inevitably confessed to the death. As he waits for the moment of his execution and hanging, the writer skillfully describes the state of his soul, the exchange of hopes and doubts. The writer describes this moment as follows: “Demezhan, a man whose destiny was at the dead end, was not given a white death, and he died in the narrow trap of the tree through the “Work of the authorities” who sent “An extreme form” of death that does not exist in this region. “Now, like a destiny of Demezhan, the destiny of the entire population will be decided within a narrow circle. Therefore, the “Destiny” contains not only human destinies, but also the deepest secrets of the life of people, who, by the choice of history, wore the yoke of destiny”.

The tragic fate of Bibi, who lost Nazarbek and Nazym alive and her husband Demezhan dead, and whose property was looted after the death of her husband, is connected with the title of the novel. A middle line in Kabdesh Zhumadilov's two novels is the destiny of many Kazakhs on the other side of the border. Many Kazakhs still live in this region. As it was described in the novel “Destiny”, there are people who are destined and still exist. As it was described in “The Last Migration”, it is unknown when the last migration to Atyrau will take place. It is known that a great Kazakh writer Kabdesh Zhumadilov's works, that are the basis of the Kazakhs` life abroad, continue to be created together with their readers as significant works in the spiritual treasury of our nation.

Subscribe to our Telegram channel. Be with us!

To copy and publish materials, you must have written or oral permission from the editorial board or the author. A hyperlink to the portal is required. All rights reserved by the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Copyright and Related Rights". 8(7172) 57 60 14 (in - 1060)

The opinion of the author of the article does not represent the opinion of the editorial board.