The history is made by people. And, it begins at some period of one time. Hence, the concept of “First person”, “First step” appears in relation to people and events. In this regard, we would like to talk about the fate of the nation's spirituality, interesting history and achievements.
A great educator told the story, “Children, come to study!” Let's start with the student-surgeon of Ybyrai Altynsarin, who invited the Kazakh child to the education. The student's name was Abubakir Aldiyarov.
Abubakir Bermukhameduly Aldiyarov was born in 1879 at the wealthy family in the village of Sarai, Nikolaev district (currently Kostanay region), Torgay region. His father Bermukhamed Kaumenuly was a well-known person in the area.
Abubakir Aldiyarov, the son of a wealthy dynasty, had great opportunities for the education. And, even if the opportunity is not lost, he will be one of the first students of the outstanding Kazakh educator Ybyrai Altynsarin. While studying at the Torgay Craft School for the Kazakh children, it is said that the photo with his teacher Ybyrai Altynsarin has been preserved in 1889.
Being educated by Altynsarin, Aldiyarov entered the Orenburg Men's Gymnasium in 1891, where he studied Latin, German, French and other subjects. Accordingly, he successfully graduated from the gymnasium in 1899. There are the following ways in the characterization of highly motivated student at the end of studies: “Aldiyarov, a former student, is a dancer at the Sarai village of the Torgay region, a descendant of honorary citizens, and a devout from the Muslim Kyrgyz. At the age of 20, he had studied at the gymnasium for 8 years ... While studying at the gymnasium, he lived in a boarding house, used a scholarship for the Kyrgyz people of Torgay region…”
Growing up to be smart since his young age, Abubakir had graduated from high school with honors. In 1899, he entered the medical faculty of Kazan Imperial University and studied with the Scholarship named after Adjutant General Kryzhanovskiy. He graduated from the university in 1904.
While A. Aldiyarov had been studying at the university, not mentioning other disciplines, he was very good at basic medical disciplines, such as pharmacology prescriptions, medical diagnostics, surgical pathology and therapy. He is known as a talented surgeon throughout the city of Troitsk. Accordingly, he had a great reputation among the people, colleagues and friends.
One of Abubakir Aldiyarov's most notorious actions as a professional specialist was a complex operation for the Kazakh democratic poet Sultanmakhmut Toraigyrov. A poet Dikhan Abilev told about this event: “A famous surgeon of the city Bakir Aldiyarov and therapist Nikolai Ivanovich Ponomarev carefully examined the case of Sultanmakhmut Toraigyrov. Then, Bakir Aldiyarov made an operation for Sultanmakhmut's eye ...” – God bless, the operation was successful! “This time Bakir Aldiyarovich has surpassed his abilities ...” – said Nikolai Ivanovich ... Right in front of him, a young doctor in a white coat Bakir was laughing with joy. Sultanmakhmut hugged him again and said: He is without you, Bakir! May your soul always be full of sunshine and warm our lives forever!” – he writes.
Abubakir Bermukhameduly had a great prestige in the country. This can be seen from G.Shokayeva's article published in the eighth issue of “Aikap” magazine in 1913. In this article, the doctor of Troitsk Hospital A. Aldiyarov treated the patient and that people wanted to see him for the medical treatment.
In 1916, the surgeon Aldiyarov voluntarily enlisted in the army and provided a medical assistance to Kazakh soldiers, who are serving in difficult conditions in the swampy area of Pin, Belarus. After returning from the army to Troitsk, he worked there as a doctor until the end of 1928.
In the meantime, in 1925, he underwent a four-month advanced training course. In 1928, he moved to Ust-Kamenogorsk, where he worked as a manager of a therapeutic and children's hospital, a doctor at the clinic of infectious diseases. In 1936, he moved to Karakol (Przhevalsk) and worked there for a short time. However, unfortunately, his subsequent illness was closely connected with the city of Jambyl, where he worked until 1938.
A talented doctor Abubakir Bermukhameduly Aldiyarov, who made a great contribution to the development of healthcare in Kazakhstan, died at the age of 59.
The next speaker is Shakhmardan Ibragimov. He is the first author of the newspaper “Turkestan Ualayaty”.
Shakhmardan Mirasuly Ibragimov was born in 1840 at the military family in the Orenburg province. His nationality is the Baskir. According to the rules of that time, he studied at the Siberian cadet corps. From 1863 to 1867, he taught the Kazakh language in Omsk. From 1865 he was a member of the People's Commission “Management of the Kazakhs”. In 1867, by the order of the Governor-General K.P. K.P.Kaufman, he worked as a translator of Persian and Tatar languages at the governor's rate.
In 1870, by the decree of the Governor-General, Shakhmardan Ibragimov became the editor of the “Turkestan Ualayaty” newspaper. Twelve years later, he was discharged from the army and recalled again two years later. He also served under various diplomatic instructions. For example, in 1890 Sh. Ibragimov was sent to the embassy in Arabia. But a year later, he died from the plague.
A highly educated, very talented public figure, Shakhmardan Ibragimov has been the author of the “Turkestan Ualayaty” newspaper for several decades. He also paid special attention to the purity of the language, the competence of the article, the attractiveness of the publication in accordance with the tastes of the time. He published many ancient Kazakh proverbs, sayings and riddles.
However, Sh. Ibragimov was a Tatar, he knew the life, customs and culture of the Kazakh people. And, he was a skilled researcher in this area. As a proof of our words we can draw such works as “Ethnographic essays of the Kazakh people” (1876), “On the mullahs of the Kazakh people” (1874), “Judicial reference of the Kazakh people” (1878).
During the reign of Shakhmardan Ibragimov, he worked as a translator-secretary of the senior sultan of Kokshetau district Chingiz Valikhanov. At that time, the future great scientist Chokan Valikhanov was 11-12 years old. Undoubtedly, the personality and perseverance of Shakhmardan, who was a supporter of the people and ready to help the needs of the people, influenced to Chokan. Later, they both worked under the general-punisher M.G. Chernyaev. And, they didn't like him either. After the death of Chokan Valikhanov, Shakhmardan Ibragimov collected his works and put them into one system. In 1870, the Governor-General K.P. Kaufman went to Altyn Emel and was saddened to see the grave of Chokan, who was in the state of shock. At that time, Sh. Ibragimov wrote three articles in the “Turkestan Ualayaty” newspaper, noting a great work of the great scientist, who died early. People need to be able to appreciate their children. Thus, all the gossip in Chokan's tomb was erased by the order of the governor-general. Looking at these good deeds, there is a reason to call Shakhmardan Mirasuly Ibragimov as one of the most influential researchers in the history of Kazakh culture.
In Kazakh, one Abu Bakr had passed in the XIX century. His father's name is Akhmetzhan. He lived from 1855 to 1933. After graduating from the Orenburg cadet corps, he began working as a translator under the military governor of Turkestan. He was the first scientist who collected the versions of Kazakh oral literature. He had travelled throughout the Syr Darya, Amu Darya, Khiva region and South Kazakhstan, where he made a habit to write the fairy tales, proverbs, riddles and poetry. And, he continued his research work at the Kazakh Institute of Education in Tashkent, teaching at the Faculty of Oriental Studies of the University of Central Asia. Since 1920, he had been a member of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) Scientific Commission of the Turkestan People's Commissariat of Education. Thus, he led his expeditions to the Syrdarya and Semirechye regions. Thus, during his fifty years of scientific activity, Abubakir Akhmetzhanuly Divayev published more than 100 works, including lullabies, introductions and rituals of the Kazakh people, jokes and epics. “Alpamys”, “Er Targyn”, “Kobylandy”, “Er Saiyn”, “Edige”, “Beket Batyr”, “Shora”, “Kambar” and others are among them. It should be noted that he collected the epic songs and prepared them for the publication. He also collected extensive ethnographic materials from the life of Kazakhs of the Syrdarya. A. Divayev's contribution to the science was acknowledged and praised by the scientists like P.M. Melioranskiy, V.A. Gordlevskiy, and V.V. Barthold. The versions and articles of oral literature collected by the scientist were published in the newspaper “Dala Ualayaty”.
Khaliulla Uskenbayev is Abai's younger brother. He lived in 1849-1870. He studied at the cadet corps in Omsk, in the military school named after Alexander III in Moscow, and served in the Siberian Kazakh military unit under the Governor-General of Western Siberia. According to G.N. Potanin, Uskenbayev translated the works of Russian classics into Kazakh.
In 1896, an article “What do pertinent Kazakhstani people do” was published in the 43rd issue of the newspaper “Dala Ualayaty”. It was said that Khaliulla Uskenbayev translated the works of Turgenov, Lermontov and Tolstoy into Kazakh and wrote them down. The versions of the literature he collected were written by the well-known orientalist I.N. Berezin. There is information that it is stored in his archives.
The first Kazakh manuscript was collected by one intellectual person Sadiakas Musauly Shormanov. His Kazakh manuscripts about education, economy, letters dedicated to G.N.Potanin are preserved. He handed over a manuscript of Abai's poems to P.M. Melioranskiy. The manuscript was preserved at the Public Library, named after academician Saltykov-Shchedrin in St. Petersburg, in the archives of A.N.Samoilovich.
Saduakas Shormanov's articles on Kazakh life and economy, education, culture and history, ethnography, changes in the administrative and judicial structure of the country, comparing past and future dances were published in the newspapers “Dala Ualayaty”, “Aikap”, “Kazakh”.
Abikei Zeinuly was born in 1881. He was born in Shadyra village (later it was called “Satpayev state farm”) of Bayanaul district, Pavlodar region. He was an outstanding teacher of the Irtysh region. Under his leadership, an action was taken in order to eradicate illiteracy in the villages. In his articles, “What should a teacher be like?”, “What should we do in education?” etc., he considered the issues of education and enlightenment, the ways of development of the Kazakh people, the need to expand the field of education of young people, the formation of the culture of speech and behavior, flexibility in the use of literary language. According to him, it is very important for a real teacher to be able to keep a small name with dignity and endure hardships, not making mistakes in the ultimate goal of his work.
Abikei Zeinuly, who taught such national figures as Zhusupbek Aimautov, Mukhtar Auezov, Alkei Margulan, Kanysh Satpayev at the Semey Pedagogical College for so many years, was persecuted and shot in 1937.
Do you know a poet who was famous for his mourning songs in Kazakhstan? He is Mailykozha Sultankozhauly.
It is safe to say that the poet's vigilance is a clear indication of the fact that the whole tribe took the country as a whole, rationally described its livelihood and way of life in a single poem. Not only mentioning that they report the plight of the poor, but they also provoke hatred and resentment in the minds of people.
A writer who does not sing about the fruits of his labor will be disrespected by the people. That is, the place of the owner of the pen in society is determined by how well it meets the needs of the working people. From this point of view, Mailykozha's poetry is not vulnerable.
A poet who calls for the perseverance and diligence in the successful implementation of the task.
“The farmer is insatiable – the land,
The man gives his wish,
Get up early and win”, – he said.
Mailykozha Sultankozhauly was born in 1835 on the Syrdarya River, on the site of the Karakol sheep farm “Kozhatogay” of the current Kyzylkum district. He was sixty-three years old, when he died in 1898 on the river Akbulak in the delta, where the Badam village council of Arys district is located nowadays. The poet lost his father at the age of fourteen. He bears the burdens of life and mourns for the bereaved people. We see this in the words he heard from his uncle Madeli during his conflict with the poem. Mailykozha's works attracted attention from an early age. It has recently become known that the poet's works were published even before the Great October Revolution under the auspices of Russian intellectuals who were friendly to Kazakh people. This was stated by the teacher of the Turkestan Teachers' Seminary Ya.Ya. Lutsch who compiled O.V. Bazilevskiy's book in 1888. A book “Kyrgyz Reader”, published by a rented publishing house, is a case in point. This book, that is considered as a collection of versions of Kazakh folk literature of the Turkestan region, contains five poems by the poet.
The first Kazakh artist was Valikhanov Maky (Abdilmakyzhan) Chingizuly. He was born in 1845 in Aiganym settlement at the foot of Syrymbet mountain, Kokshetau district. Yes, he is the first professional artist from Kazakhstan. From 1855 to 1864, he studied at the Imperial School in St. Petersburg. He served in the office of the Governor-General of Western Siberia. He was involved in painting and handicrafts. In 1876, he won a gold medal at the exhibition of the Congress of Orientalists in St. Petersburg. It is said that many articles about Maki Valikhanov's art were published in pre-revolutionary newspapers and magazines.
Let's talk about Dinmukhamed Sultangazin. Because he is also a relative of the famous scientist Chokan Valikhanov. He is definitely his nephew. Initially, he studied at Tomsk University, then at the Faculty of Law of St. Petersburg University.
It is known that the newspaper “Dala Ualayatynyn Gazeti” (1888-1902), which was once published in the Kazakh and Russian languages, has a significant place in the history of our national culture. One of its publishers was Dinmukhamed (Dinshe) Sultangazin, an expert scholar and translator who left his mark on the history of the Kazakh press and literature. In addition to publishing the competent articles on the culture, language and literature of our people in the newspaper “Dala Ualayatynyn Gazeti”, he also translated and published in both languages due to his journalistic duties. Besides that, he collected and published the versions of oral literature.
He supported his colleague Chokan Valikhanov's work in the field of education and hired as a teacher. He published extensive articles on the Kazakh language and correctly analyzed its current state and prospects. His views on the wrongness of foreign words, how to transcribe them when they were received, the difference between the Kazakh language and other Turkic languages, the fact that the Arabic alphabet does not come to write Kazakh words, have not lost their relevance. The news and articles about the customs, laws and traditions of the Kazakh people are especially valuable and important materials for our history. From the works of D. Sultangazin published in the newspaper “Dala Ualayatynyn Gazeti” we can see that he was an educated and talented writer who mastered the culture of writing. It is also a symbol of his time, the level of science and education of that time.
Mukhamed-Salyk Babazhanov also made a great contribution to the promotion of Kazakh oral literature. He is a graduate of the Zhangirkhan school, the first Muslim-Russian school opened in the Horde. Later, in 1845, he graduated from the Neplyuyev Cadet Corps in Orenburg. A historian, ethnographer and geographer Babazhanov published the articles in the Bulletin of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society.
He published about 300 Kazakh proverbs in the Turkestan regional newspaper, for the 28-33 issues of 1876, and 10-12 issues of 1877. “Kozhasalyk Babazhanov, who worked in Tashkent, gave to our newspaper Kazakh proverbs collected in the Bokei horde of the Middle Zhuz”, – those proverbs, that started with this introduction, are considered to be the most valuable artifacts as the first versions of the printed page.
A few words about Khaireddin Bolganbayev, the owner of the difficult but interesting destiny.
Hayretdin Abdrakhmanuly`s life is full of bitter dreams, but it is an exemplary life. We have just started to get acquainted with him. We haven`t known him yet. The more you look at the life and legacy of our compatriot, who has just learned that he is an Alash activist, educator, scientist, poet, ardent publicist, the stronger his personality grows.
A brief information about the life of the figure: he was born in 1893 (according to some sources in 1894) in the village of Zhosaly of the Korgalzhyn district of Akmola region. As a person, public figure and political figure, his name is well-known in his early twenties. In the newspaper “Kazakh”, G.N. Potanin published articles about I. Gasprinskiy, Kazakh customs, education, and the autonomy of Turkestan. When he published those articles, he wrote with the names like “An old boy”, “Bortan”, “An old man”.
In 1917-1918, he participated in the publication of the newspaper “Birlik Tui” along with Mustafa Shokai and Sultanbek Kozhanov. From 1918 to 1919 he studied at the pedagogical course in Tashkent, from 1919 to 1921 he worked as a teacher in Tashkent and Orenburg. In 1921, on behalf of Alikhan Bukeikhanov and Akhmet Baitursynov, he met with Zaki Walidi Togan, who led the movement of rebels in Bukhara along with Enver bashaw. In 1922-1923, he was the Deputy head of the department of public education in Akmola, and in 1924-1927, he worked in Kyzylzhar. In 1928, by the decision of the Unified State Political Department, he was judged to 5 years as an “Enemy of the people” and deported to Siberia. After returning from exile in 1934, he went to Almaty. Later, he moved to Kaplanbek village of Saryagash district of the current South Kazakhstan region and settled there. He was arrested during political repressions in 1937 and sentenced to death on October 21 of that year in Tashkent. He was acquitted on February 26, 1958.
A tatar writer, Galymzhan Girfanuly Ibragimov (1887-1938), who was a teacher of Kazakh poets and writers such as Magzhan Zhumabayev, Beimbet Mailin and others, worked as a teacher during in the days of old. In the process, he became fluent in the Kazakh language and wrote a novel about the life of his relatives, called “Kazakh girl”. In 1916, he praised a rich oral literature of the Kazakh people as a great heritage in the 5th issue of the magazine “Animal” (“Consciousness”), encouraging studying and master. “Kazakhs have been learning from Tatar culture and literature for some time. However, they set out on their own glorious journey someday soon. Nothing can stop this process”. He connects a new epoch of our national literature with the name of Abai.
Galymzhan Ibragimov, who helped to publish the magazine “Sadak” in the native language of Kazakh youth studying at the Galiya madrasah in Ufa, mentioned that “No nation has ever succeeded in taking away the mother tongue and making it a foreign language”. And, he also claimed Abai's poetry as the evidence of his words: “Abai's poems are widely spread in the vast Kazakh steppes now. They are always told by the people”, he said. It came out of Ibragimov's mouth.
Moldagali Zholdybayev was a teacher-methodologist and journalist who graduated from the 6th grade of the Russian-Kazakh school in Karasu (now, it`s Kaztalov district, West Kazakhstan region) and he studied at the Orenburg Russian-Kazakh Teachers' School.
He worked as a teacher at the Buldyrty 4th grade primary school and Karasu 6th grade Russian-Kazakh school in Zhubanyshkol. In 1913-1914, he published the articles in the magazine “Aikap”, entitled “The current state of the Kazakhs”, “Bolashak”, “In the village”, “Answer to the Honorable Alzhanov”, in 1915, in the newspaper ‘Kazakh” he published the articles under the pseudonym “Moldagali Zhana Baibakty”, “The defeat of the scientist from the ignorance”. In 1917, he participated in the organization of the 1st Kazakh Congress of the Ural region. In January 1918, he was a delegate at the 3rd Kazakh Congress of the Ural region, that took place in Karatobe. By the decision of the Presidium of the Ural Provincial Committee of July 8, 1920, he chaired a temporary composition of the Revolutionary Committee of Zhympity District. In the same year, he was elected one of the first members of the newly formed RK (b) P Zhympity district committee and was the head of the cultural and educational department, chairman of the commission for the elimination of illiteracy under the district committee, a member of the group of lecturers as well. He made significant contributions to the development of science and education, the press and literature in the region, serving as the chairman of the Zhympity district committee, deputy chairman of the executive committee in the Ural province, chairman of the Academic Center for the Science, Press and Literature of the People's Commissariat of Education of the Kazakh SSR in Orenburg.
Then, he was the executive editor of the newspaper “Enbekshi Kazakh”. At the same time, he taught history of Russian and Kazakh literature at the Kazakh Institute of Public Education, the Orenburg Workers' Front and other educational institutions. In 1927, he was appointed as the first editor of the newly published pedagogical publication – the magazine “New School” (“School of Kazakhstan”) and became the chairman of the Methodological Council under the People's Commissariat of the Education of Kazakhstan. During these years, he wrote the textbook “Working book for reading (1st year of training, Kyzylorda)”, along with T. Shonanov, published a textbook “Kazakh literature of the XIX and early XX centuries” (Almaty, 1933) along with A. Konyratbayev, and also, wrote the second part of the “Literature Reader” for 4th grade (1934, Kyzylorda) along with M. Karatayev.
He taught the folklore, history of Kazakh literature of the XIX century at KazPI, Almaty School of Journalism, became an associate professor. During his career he worked under his own name and under the pseudonyms “Y”, “Saskan”, “Dummy disk” and he wrote the articles “Criticism”, “In the world of literature”, “Isatai Taimanuly”, etc. He also wrote the short stories “The Road”, “Loss”, “Resurrection”, “Five Fugitives”.
In December 1937, he was arrested on false charges of “Enemy of the people” for his earlier participation in the Alash movement, and in February 1938, he was sentenced to the death by firing the squad. Later, he was acquitted along with Alash activists.
The name of Salken Balaubaev is associated with the Kazakh alphabet of Latin graphics at the beginning of the last century. As you know, from 1928 to 1941, the Kazakh script was in Latin script. The same thing goes to the development of Kazakh science and literature. Many samples of oral literature were collected from the ground and became a book for the reader. The children's literature, especially from Europe, was translated directly into Kazakh. For example, Mark Twain's “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” by Mark Twain, “The Gavroche” by Victor Hugo, “The Remnants of Munchausen” by Raspe, and other works of children's literature. One thing that is very important here is that the translators translated these works directly from English, French and German into Kazakh.
For example, E. Raspen's book “The Legacy of Munchausen” was published by Kazakhstan Fiction Publishing House in 1935, in Almaty. It is the rewritten version of the book for children. It is translated into Kazakh language by Salken Balaubaev. However, only Salken is mentioned in the book, and there is no information that his surname is Balaubayev. During the years when the book was published in Kazakh, the translator was accused of being an “Enemy of the people”. In the meantime, more or less information about the translator.
Salken Balaubaev is a famous Kazakh scientist. He contributed to the development of national pedagogy and psychology, Kazakh grammar based on the Latin alphabet. In his time, he wrote textbooks on psychology and pedagogy in the Kazakh language. He also translated and wrote poetry. He was a graduate of Central Asian State University.
The destiny of Salken Balaubayev is full of tragedy. One day in November 1937, his scientific and pedagogical activity was interrupted unexpectedly. He was judged for 20 years in prison on the charges of being an enemy of the people and a member of the Alash party. And, unfortunately, only the above-mentioned work “The remains of Munchausen” has survived in the field of translation.
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